The Problem: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for many negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cancer and other chronic conditions such as cirrhosis, and alcohol-impaired driving is one of the largest contributors to motor vehicle crashes CDC: Alcohol Use Factsheet. Each year in the United States, roughly 10,500 people die in motor vehicle crashes involving an alcohol-impaired driver.
The Problem: Head injury is the leading cause of injury and death in bicycling accidents. Survivors of crashes may face lifelong chronic complications associated with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Bicycle helmet use reduces the risk of injury by 80%, although they are underutilized by all age groups. CDC: Injury Prevention and Control.
The Problem: Youth violence is an enormous public health problem in the United States, with homicide standing as the third leading cause of death for people between the ages of 10 and 24. CDC: Youth Violence Fast Facts. Juvenile court systems have often been criticized for inadequately deterring and poorly preventing recidivism among violent youthful offenders. Steiner B, Hemmens C, Bell V. Legislative W
The Problem: Tooth decay, also known as dental caries, remains a major public health problem. Though largely preventable, it is the most common chronic disease for kids aged 6 to 11 years old and teens aged 12-19 years old. . CDC Dental Caries Fact Sheet. Advanced tooth decay can cause significant pain and loss of the teeth, and can be costly to treat. CDC: Oral Health: At a Glance: 2009.
The Problem: Tobacco use is a source of chronic and fatal illnesses for users and persons with secondary exposure. Smoking is responsible for approximately 1 in 5 deaths in the United States, causing 480,000 deaths annually. Smoking increases risk for stroke by 2-4 times, coronary heart disease by 2-4 times, lung cancer by about 25 times, and lowers overall health. Quitting smoking vastly reduces risk; within 2-5 of cessation, risk of stroke drops to that of a non-smoker.
The Problem: In 2018, obesity affected 1 in 5 children and adolescents and 39.9% of adults in the U.S.. Each condition increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and some cancers. CDC: Obesity Statistics Regular physical activity reduces the risk of obesity and has many other health benefits. Yet, only half ofof adults in the United States get the recommended amount of physical activity.
The Problem: The maltreatment of children is a tragically common occurrence in the United States with a devastating impact on the health of young Americans. The direct effects of child maltreatment for victims include injuries and a host of stress-induced harms including poor psychological health, obesity, eating disorders and suicide.
The Problem: Violence is a major public health problem. There were more than 19,500 deaths from homicide in 2017 CDC: National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). In addition to directly causing acute injuries, emotional harm, and deaths, crime may undermine population health through indirect mechanisms. For example, high rates of crime make outdoor exercise unsafe, contributing to lower levels of physical activity. Crime also adds to the burden of stress for people living in high crime areas.