Research Results

Results from grant-funded research projects evaluating public health law issues.

Heroin and pharmaceutical opioid overdose events: Emergency medical response characteristics

This study describes patient characteristics, clinical features, and EMS response to opioid overdoses in Seattle, comparing heroin and pharmaceutical opioid (PO) overdoses from six alternating months in 2011. While they are clinical similar, the study finds that heroin and pharmaceutical opioid overdoses are treated differently by responders.

Implementation of Anti-Bullying Legislation in Iowa Schools: A Qualitative Examination of School Administrators’ Perceived Barriers and Facilitators

From 2013 to 2014, researchers conducted 47 semi-structured interviews with school and district administrators in Iowa about its 2007 anti-bullying law. Administrators identified many policy implementation challenges related to funding and staff, prevention programs, applying the law’s bullying definition in investigations, and understanding the school’s jurisdiction for policy enforcement. They also raised contextual barriers to implementation, like media portrayals of bullying and parental attitudes.

Better Health Faster: The Five Essential Public Health Law Services

The authors describe Five Essential Public Health Law Services and suggest investment in the people, methods and tools needed to move major policy initiatives from conception to widespread implementation. The model reflects a transdisciplinary approach integrating public health legal practice with law-related surveillance, evaluation and enforcement functions usually performed by public health practitioners. As an elaboration of law-related activities within the Ten Essential Public Health Services, the framework can be used to define, evaluate and strengthen public health law functions.

Effect of Maryland’s 2011 Alcohol Sales Tax Increase on Alcohol-Positive Driving

Researchers from the University of Maryland Baltimore found that the alcohol sales tax increase resulted in a 6 percent annual reduction in the rate of alcohol-positive drivers involved in an injury crash with an even more pronounced effect among younger drivers.

The alcohol sales tax impacted drivers 15 to 20 years old and 21 to 34 years old more than the older age groups. Among young drivers, there was a 12 percent annual reduction following the alcohol sales tax increase.

School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action

Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. This study examined school administrators’ perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies.

The Impact of Hospital Resources and Availability of Professional Lactation Support on Maternity Care: Results of Breastfeeding Surveys 2009–2014

Breastfeeding provides maternal and infant health benefits. Maternity care practices encompassed in the 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are positively associated with improved breastfeeding outcomes. This study assessed changes in maternity care practices and lactation support.

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