The Problem: The operation of motor vehicles while intoxicated is a major public health problem. Each year in the United States roughly 13,400 people die and an additional 255,500 are injured in motor vehicle crashes involving an alcohol-impaired driver. In 2006, these crashes accounted for almost a third of all U.S. traffic-related deaths. CDC: Impaired Driving Factsheet.
The Problem: Firearms are the second leading cause of injury deaths in the United States accounting for 30,896 deaths and 71,417 injuries in 2006. CDC: WISQUARS. Annually, firearm injuries generate life-time medical costs of roughly $2.3 billion. Cook PJ, Lawrence BA, Ludwig J, Miller TR. The medical costs of gunshot injuries in the United States.JAMA. 1999;282:447-454.
This project will explore how individuals make decisions about: 1) vaccinations, 2) sexual behavior, 3) preventative medication and health habits, 4) medical procedures and treatment, and 5) health insurance coverage. The study will map existing case law and regulations on the presentation of risk-related information, such as the validity and interpretation of waivers and disclaimers and will uncover patterns in choices and preferences building on behavioral insights.
Drug overdose deaths have surpassed traffic fatalities in Washington State and 15 other states. This study will examine the legal intent, implementation and outcomes of a new Washington state law to support intervening in drug overdoses. The law includes a Good Samaritan component that provides legal immunity from drug possession charges for people who overdose or seek aid for another person’s overdose. It also allows the prescribing of an opioid antidote medicine (Naloxone) to drug users and their partners.
The federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides a basic set of protections for workers who are injured or ill, for new parents, and for workers who need to care for a family member. Family and medical leave access represents an essential element of worker, family, and population health. While there has been limited quantitative and qualitative analysis of the impact and utilization of the federal FMLA, very little attention is known about the content or outcomes associated with state family and medical leave laws.
This project will map US state laws criminalizing the transmission (or exposure of others to risk of transmission) of HIV. Using legal databases, the two-phase research process will first map criminalization statutes, and then reported judicial findings which characterize conduct risking HIV transmission as a common law crime (e.g., as a form of reckless endangerment or of battery).
In 2011, governors and conservative legislatures in four of 11 states with state-run monopoly spirits sales pushed to shift to private sales at many more outlets, while Georgia voted on allowing off-premises alcohol sales on Sundays.
This project will look at the implementation of Virginia’s newly-enacted Health Care Decisions Act (HCDA) and identify the key barriers and enabling factors that will determine the law’s ultimate impact on health outcomes, safety, and quality of life for persons with severe mental illness.
Dental erosion is a widespread and increasing problem. This study will answer the question of what law and legal practices impact the consumption and purchase in Central Appalachia of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and citric acid drinks (CADs) that adversely affect oral health.
This project will develop a framework for identifying factors that shape states’ choices among policy options across a number of public health policy issues, and understanding how these choices are related to population health.